Congratulations to Raphael Costa for the successful defense of his dissertation!

TitleMaking the ‘New Lourinhã, a European Lourinhã’: Democracy, Civic
Engagement, and the Urban Development of Lourinhã, Portugal
since 1966.

Abstract: Since 1966, Lourinhã’s urban landscape has transformed as Portugal
democratized. From a rural town with little infrastructure and few institutions in
1966, Lourinhã had emerged by 2001 as an ostensibly modern European town.
This work highlights key areas of economic and urban development, and argues
that Lourinhã’s political culture became more institutionalized leaving less room
for, and withering expectation of, citizen participation in local development as
Portugal transitioned from dictatorship to democracy.
This dissertation examines Portugal’s transition from the Estado Novo
dictatorship (1933-1974) to European social democracy by focusing on
Lourinhã’s – a town of 22,000 people north of Lisbon – urbanization between
1966 and 2001. Lourinhã’s urbanization involved, and indeed required, a shift in
its institutional and political culture. In the 1960s and 1970s, people were
expected to participate in development at a cultural, political and financial level,
acting as substitutes for non-existent state mechanisms of development.
However, by the late 1980s, the momentum had shifted as regional, national, and
European institutions participated in developmental programs, marking a
dramatic change in how citizens engaged with the state and the Portuguese
From this shift has emerged a debate about the nature of Portugal’s
transition to democracy. With the Carnation Revolution of 1974 – the military
coup that toppled the Estado Novo – at the center of analysis, academics and
pundits ask whether that event represented “evolution or revolution” for Portugal.
Was Portugal on the path towards democracy before 1974? And, given
contemporary problems, was the rapid shift to European social democracy the
blessing it appeared to be by the 1990s? Did democratization disenfranchise the
Portuguese in important ways? Are commentators like Jorge Silva Melo, a Lisbon
playwright who began his career in the Estado Novo years correct in asserting
that, “under the dictatorship there was hope … that was in ‘72/’73. Nowadays, its
exactly the opposite: there is no hope”? This dissertation uses Lourinhã’s
development as an example of a Portuguese experience to argue that the
Carnation Revolution, although a watershed in Portugal’s politico-cultural
evolution, should not be understood as the moment when democracy came to

Supervisory Committee:
Adrian Shubert (Supervisor)
Suzanne Langlois
António Costa Pinto

Defense Committee:
Antonia Cazorla (Trent U)
Maria João Dodman
Sean Kheraj

Raphael, way to go and thank you (also for being a co-president of the GHSA in 2010-11).

From your friends and peers!


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Historians’ Craft – Prof. Esteve Morera – Sep 23

Morera - invitatioin

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Congratulations to Gil Fernandes for the successful defense of his dissertation!

Title: Of Outcasts and Ambassadors: the Making of Portuguese Diaspora in Postwar North America.

Abstract: How can a small peripheral government with few material resources assert itself as a geopolitical player in an era of rising global governance and dwindling nation-state sovereignty? This was the question in the minds of Portuguese officials when developing their foreign policies in the aftermath of the Second World War and again after the Revolution of the Carnations of April 25, 1974. In their case, examined in this study, the answer was similar in both contexts: tie Portuguese nationhood with imperial and diasporic imaginings, and develop a national diaspora with close ties with the homeland and its government. This study examines the social, cultural, religious, economic, and political processes by which Portugal’s Estado Novo dictatorship laid the foundations for the diasporic discourse and institutions that followed the end of the colonial empire and the introduction of a new democratic political order after 1974. I will focus on the role played by homeland diplomats, ethnic entrepreneurs, Catholic missionaries, political activists and other transnational intermediaries in shaping a diasporic consciousness among the Portuguese communities of eastern Canada – Toronto and Montreal – and northeastern United States – New Bedford, Fall River, Boston, Providence, Newark, and other cities in New England and the Greater New York City area. This dissertation also engages with current discussions in the field of migration studies, especially those related with the concepts of diaspora, transnationalism, and nation-state, as well as ethnicity, class, and race, and introduces an imperial and homeland dimension to our frame of analysis. The period of history examined (1950s-70s) covers the inauguration of Portuguese mass migration to Canada and its resurgence to the United States; the rise of large international governing bodies, rival Cold War superpowers and their spheres of influence; the Portuguese Colonial Wars in Africa and the downfall of settler colonialism; the emergence of cultural pluralism and identity politics in Canada and parts of the United States; the radicalization of the Portuguese “anti-fascist” opposition; and the revolutionary transition to democracy in Portugal. These larger processes framed the local, national, and transnational histories of Portuguese immigrants in North America and had significant impact in the development of their diasporic communities, consciousness, and identities.

Supervisory Committee:
Roberto Perin (supervisor)
Adrian Shubert
William Jenkins

Defense Committee:
Franca Iacovetta (external)
José Curto (internal/external)
Gabriele Scardellato (Dean’s rep/chair)

Gil, good luck and many thanks (also for being a co-president of the GHSA in 2011-12).

From all of us : ) 


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Invitation to the Orientation Day

Orientation invitation

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Greetings history grads! Hopefully you are all enjoying the last days of summer.

TH@Y (Teaching History @ York), an initiative in our department for history TAs by history TAs, will be running a History-specific TA Day on THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4TH. Coffee and Registration will be at 8:30 and presentations and workshops will start at 9 a.m. Please join us in the Department of History Common Room (Vari Hall 2183).

Though this event is targeted at new and incoming TAs, we would also like to invite experienced TAs to come and share their experience and meet their new colleagues. Also, recall that TH@Y is offering a certificate (validated by the Department) for those students who attend eight or more TH@Y events. Of course, the value of our TA Days and other TH@Y activities comes not only from the certificate, but also from the valuable insight offered by an open dialogue with your fellow TAs.

Topics at this fall’s TA Day will include:

-Icebreakers and First-Day Protocol

-Lesson Planning

-Marking, Rubrics, and Encouraging Participation

-Rights and Responsibilities, Conflict and Accommodations

-Tech in the Classroom

This is an excellent opportunity to further develop your teaching skills and to meet our incoming TAs and hopefully some MAs as well, in addition to working towards the TH@Y Certificate in Teaching. Lunch and snacks will be provided.

Please RSVP to Max Smith at by August 29th.

We look forward to seeing you again on September 4th!

Marlee Couling

Maximilian Smith

Joanna Pearce

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The Harriet Tubman Institute’s Speaker Series: Dr. Bronwen Everill: “Sierra Leone Trade and the Ethical Atlantic”

The Harriet Tubman Institute’s Speaker Series will recommence on Wednesday, February 5th at 3:30pm in 305 York Lanes. Dr. Bronwen Everill from King’s College in London will be presenting her current research: “Sierra Leone Trade and the Ethical Atlantic.”

Come out and join in the conversation. For further information, contact: Myles Ali

Light refreshments will be served (generously provided by York’s Graduate History Student Association).

Sierra Leone Trade and the Ethical Atlantic

From the foundation of the Sierra Leone colony in 1787, British and American abolitionists eagerly awaited the results of the anti-slave trade settlement experiment. As part of an Atlantic-wide project of convincing consumers and producers of the evils of slavery, Sierra Leone – and its settlers, government officials, slave traders, Eurafrican residents, and original inhabitants – was a case study to be held up in admiration or scorn. This paper will investigate the intellectual and economic contribution of the colony and its surrounds to the debates over consumption and production that shaped the ‘ethical Atlantic’ in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.


Dr Everill received her PhD from King’s College London in 2010. She has subsequently held posts at Oxford and Warwick Universities. She is the author of Abolition and Empire in Sierra Leone and Liberia (Palgrave, 2013), editor of The History and Practice of Humanitarian Intervention and Aid in Africa (Palgrave, 2013), and her work has been published in Slavery & Abolition, the Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth Studies, and the Journal of Global History. Her current Leverhulme Fellowship project is entitled African Trade and Ethical Consumption in the Atlantic World, 1760-1840.

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“What do you do when you’re not a grad student?”: An Interview with Brooke Sales-Lee

As part of our efforts to connect graduate students outside of the classroom/department, we’re interviewing our fellow grad students about what they do when they’re not reading, writing, or researching.

This week we interview Brooke Sales-Lee, a PhD Year I who studies the use of Catholicism by the Portuguese dictatorship during the Cold War. She is also one of the 2013-2014 co-editors of The Document, the GHSA’s newsletter.

 1. What do you do when you’re not a grad student? Describe your hobby/job/talent keeping in mind that others may know little or nothing about it.

When I’m not being a grad student, I help do historical research for the Museum of Canadian Burlesque. It’s a new and ongoing project that doesn’t have a physical space yet, but it’s a long-term project. Basically, the Museum is creating an archive and permanent exhibit of documents, photographs, costumes, props, etc. related to burlesque across Canada from the earliest days of burlesque in the nineteenth-century to the neo-burlesque of today. My role is basically helping with the history side of things. Less the actual acquisition of items, more the building of timelines, context, historical connections and trends, etc. So far it has meant working with a lot of memoirs and online newspaper archives, but there are plans for future archival work as well. Basically, when I’m not doing history, I’m doing history with rhinestones.

2. How long have you been doing this, and how did you get involved?

Brooke Sales-Lee with Mysterion and Canadian Burlesque Hall of Famer and burlesque show host extraordinaire Canadian Wolfman.

Brooke Sales-Lee with Mysterion and Canadian Burlesque Hall of Famer and burlesque show host extraordinaire Canadian Wolfman.

I started working on the Museum project early in 2013 when I was writing a paper for Marc Stein’s History of Sexuality course. I was already familiar with the local burlesque scene in Toronto, and it seemed like a great way to get more involved. I came to York as a Canadian who had been educated from Grade One through university in the US. Suddenly there were all these people doing really great Canadian and local history. I knew no Canadian history whatsoever, did really pretty traditional top-down history focusing on elites, and when I heard that the organizer behind all this, Chris Doyle (aka Mysterion the Mindreader), was looking for help, I jumped at the chance. I wrote my paper on burlesque in Toronto and struggled all the way, as there really isn’t a lot available yet. But I got into my primary research, twentieth-century Portuguese history, because there wasn’t really much out there (at least in English), so clearly this is just the sort of thing I enjoy. After the paper was done, I sent all my notes, my finished paper, a timeline, and a bunch of news clippings to Chris, who has been keeping me in the loop since.

 3. What’s your favourite aspect of this activity?

It’s really hard to say! The first thing that comes to mind is the non-research part, going to shows and especially taking people for the first time. I’ve never taken someone who didn’t have fun, and a lot of people have said to me, “oh, I GET IT now!” I’m a bit of an evangelist for burlesque as a feminist, working-class-friendly, politically engaged art form, and it can be hard to explain how women taking off their clothes and dancing in rhinestone underwear can be a bold feminist act. Learning more about the history has really only driven this home for me, though. I’ve read a fair bit of secondary literature from various disciplines, and you see over and over again the themes of women escaping poverty and abuse, owning their bodies and sexuality, becoming business-savvy, defying gender norms and expectations. A lot has been written about all this in the US, but there’s not a whole lot yet about Canada.

Working on this has given me a really great connection to my city. It’s not all politicians and war heroes. When I am in Chinatown and see the RBC branch on the corner of Dundas and Spadina, I know that used to be a huge burlesque theatre. I walk down Queen Street and see the lovely old church that was the focus of pearl clutching in the early 1960s because there was a burlesque theatre practically across the street, and city councilors had accidentally made burlesque on Sundays legal when they made theatrical performances of any kind legal on Sundays. I know that because the venues for concerts were so limited in the 1970s that the first punk rock concerts in Toronto took place in burlesque halls, the only venues willing to take them. The project has given me a feel for the artistic, musical, theatrical, and in some cases political bones of twentieth-century Toronto. That’s something I wouldn’t have been able to get without this project, and it’s given me a sense of belonging here.

I went to a fundraiser show for the Museum last fall, and it was really remarkable. A lot of historians will know that as you do research, you find all sorts of fun anecdotes and stories that don’t make it to your finished work. This show was about the history of burlesque in Toronto, and it was like watching all my fun anecdotes play out on stage before me. With feather fans and rhinestones! I don’t think I could ask for more than that.

4. How do you manage the balance between your graduate career and your activity?

I’m a big fan of productive procrastination, where you procrastinate from one important task by doing another important task. But really, while I’m in coursework, a lot is on hold. I tried to be honest with myself and the other people working on the project about my ability to devote time to extra research, and I’m a bit time-starved right now. But if I don’t go to a burlesque show fairly regularly and chat with people I know, catch up with Chris about the latest progress on the Museum project and so on, I get a bit run-down. There are a few monthly shows in Toronto and a ton of special shows, often with fun themes, so I can hardly go to all of them, but I will often go to a couple shows a month and just make sure I get my work done before 7:00 and don’t have class or TAing first thing the next morning.

Brooke with burlesque legend Tempest Storm.

Brooke with burlesque legend Tempest Storm.

Most shows start at or after 9:00, so it’s really more a matter of not having anything to do early in the morning. I make sure to always go to events with legends, the women who were performing in the hey-day of burlesque from the 1930s to 1950s, and last year I sat moist-eyed through the greater part of a talk by Tempest Storm about her life and experiences. I still keep an eye out for books and articles, and I’m a bit of a compulsive researcher and sometimes do a quick web search of a digital archive. You know, just to check… And because I just can’t leave well enough alone, I’m helping one of the producers of a monthly show organize the February show to be a fundraiser for a women’s shelter. It’s not about history per se, but it definitely connects back to the themes of women escaping poverty abuse, reclaiming their bodies, and remaking their lives. And that’s really my favourite bit, I think.

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